On paper, Kashmir ceded to India when Kashmiri ruler signed a document of accession. However, a substantial portion of his subjects, the Kashmiri nation, rebelled against this decision, and some were prodded by Pakistan to rebel and reject the ruler’s decision. In either case, ruler’s decision became controversial and a Kashmiri resistance to India’s control continues. And then both Pakistan and India invaded Kashmir to enforce their control. The UN High Commissioner of Human Rights, in his two landmark reports on Kashmir, in June 2018 and July 2019, clearly refers to characteristics of military occupation.